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Black Matter

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Black Matter

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Dark Matter

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Dark matter: The matter we can't see - James Gillies

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If one of these theories proved to be true, it could help scientists gain a better understanding of the composition of our universe and, in particular, how galaxies hold together.

It is distributed evenly throughout the universe, not only in space but also in time — in other words, its effect is not diluted as the universe expands.

The even distribution means that dark energy does not have any local gravitational effects, but rather a global effect on the universe as a whole.

This leads to a repulsive force, which tends to accelerate the expansion of the universe. According to one idea, dark energy is a fifth and previously unknown type of fundamental force called quintessence, which fills the universe like a fluid.

Many scientists have also pointed out that the known properties of dark energy are consistent with a cosmological constant, a mathematical Band-Aid that Albert Einstein added to his theory of general relativity to make his equations fit with the notion of a static universe.

According to Einstein, the constant would be a repulsive force that counteracts gravity, keeping the universe from collapsing in on itself.

Einstein later discarded the idea when astronomical observations revealed that the universe was expanding, calling the cosmological constant his "biggest blunder.

Now that we see the expansion of the universe is accelerating, adding in dark energy as a cosmological constant could neatly explain how space-time is being stretched apart.

But that explanation still leaves scientists clueless as to why the strange force exists in the first place. Illustration courtesy Volker Springel, Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, et al.

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Maybe it was a result of a long-discarded version of Einstein's theory of gravity, one that contained what was called a "cosmological constant.

Maybe there is something wrong with Einstein's theory of gravity and a new theory could include some kind of field that creates this cosmic acceleration.

Theorists still don't know what the correct explanation is, but they have given the solution a name. It is called dark energy.

More is unknown than is known. We know how much dark energy there is because we know how it affects the universe's expansion. Other than that, it is a complete mystery.

But it is an important mystery. Come to think of it, maybe it shouldn't be called "normal" matter at all, since it is such a small fraction of the universe.

One explanation for dark energy is that it is a property of space. Albert Einstein was the first person to realize that empty space is not nothing.

Space has amazing properties, many of which are just beginning to be understood. The first property that Einstein discovered is that it is possible for more space to come into existence.

Then one version of Einstein's gravity theory, the version that contains a cosmological constant , makes a second prediction: "empty space" can possess its own energy.

Because this energy is a property of space itself, it would not be diluted as space expands. As more space comes into existence, more of this energy-of-space would appear.

As a result, this form of energy would cause the universe to expand faster and faster. Unfortunately, no one understands why the cosmological constant should even be there, much less why it would have exactly the right value to cause the observed acceleration of the universe.

Another explanation for how space acquires energy comes from the quantum theory of matter. In this theory, "empty space" is actually full of temporary "virtual" particles that continually form and then disappear.

By analyzing the distribution of multiple image copies, scientists have been able to deduce and map the distribution of dark matter around the MACS J Weak gravitational lensing investigates minute distortions of galaxies, using statistical analyses from vast galaxy surveys.

By examining the apparent shear deformation of the adjacent background galaxies, the mean distribution of dark matter can be characterized.

The mass-to-light ratios correspond to dark matter densities predicted by other large-scale structure measurements. Light follows the curvature of spacetime, resulting in the lensing effect.

Although both dark matter and ordinary matter are matter, they do not behave in the same way. In particular, in the early universe, ordinary matter was ionized and interacted strongly with radiation via Thomson scattering.

Dark matter does not interact directly with radiation, but it does affect the CMB by its gravitational potential mainly on large scales , and by its effects on the density and velocity of ordinary matter.

Ordinary and dark matter perturbations, therefore, evolve differently with time and leave different imprints on the cosmic microwave background CMB.

The cosmic microwave background is very close to a perfect blackbody but contains very small temperature anisotropies of a few parts in , A sky map of anisotropies can be decomposed into an angular power spectrum, which is observed to contain a series of acoustic peaks at near-equal spacing but different heights.

The series of peaks can be predicted for any assumed set of cosmological parameters by modern computer codes such as CMBFAST and CAMB , and matching theory to data, therefore, constrains cosmological parameters.

The CMB anisotropy was first discovered by COBE in , though this had too coarse resolution to detect the acoustic peaks. After the discovery of the first acoustic peak by the balloon-borne BOOMERanG experiment in , the power spectrum was precisely observed by WMAP in —, and even more precisely by the Planck spacecraft in — The results support the Lambda-CDM model.

The observed CMB angular power spectrum provides powerful evidence in support of dark matter, as its precise structure is well fitted by the Lambda-CDM model , [62] but difficult to reproduce with any competing model such as modified Newtonian dynamics MOND.

Structure formation refers to the period after the Big Bang when density perturbations collapsed to form stars, galaxies, and clusters.

Prior to structure formation, the Friedmann solutions to general relativity describe a homogeneous universe. Later, small anisotropies gradually grew and condensed the homogeneous universe into stars, galaxies and larger structures.

Ordinary matter is affected by radiation, which is the dominant element of the universe at very early times. As a result, its density perturbations are washed out and unable to condense into structure.

Dark matter provides a solution to this problem because it is unaffected by radiation. Therefore, its density perturbations can grow first.

The resulting gravitational potential acts as an attractive potential well for ordinary matter collapsing later, speeding up the structure formation process.

If dark matter does not exist, then the next most likely explanation must be general relativity — the prevailing theory of gravity — is incorrect and should be modified.

The Bullet Cluster, the result of a recent collision of two galaxy clusters, provides a challenge for modified gravity theories because its apparent center of mass is far displaced from the baryonic center of mass.

Type Ia supernovae can be used as standard candles to measure extragalactic distances, which can in turn be used to measure how fast the universe has expanded in the past.

Baryon acoustic oscillations BAO are fluctuations in the density of the visible baryonic matter normal matter of the universe on large scales.

These are predicted to arise in the Lambda-CDM model due to acoustic oscillations in the photon—baryon fluid of the early universe, and can be observed in the cosmic microwave background angular power spectrum.

BAOs set up a preferred length scale for baryons. This feature was predicted theoretically in the s and then discovered in , in two large galaxy redshift surveys, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey.

Large galaxy redshift surveys may be used to make a three-dimensional map of the galaxy distribution. These maps are slightly distorted because distances are estimated from observed redshifts ; the redshift contains a contribution from the galaxy's so-called peculiar velocity in addition to the dominant Hubble expansion term.

On average, superclusters are expanding more slowly than the cosmic mean due to their gravity, while voids are expanding faster than average.

In a redshift map, galaxies in front of a supercluster have excess radial velocities towards it and have redshifts slightly higher than their distance would imply, while galaxies behind the supercluster have redshifts slightly low for their distance.

This effect causes superclusters to appear squashed in the radial direction, and likewise voids are stretched.

Their angular positions are unaffected. This effect is not detectable for any one structure since the true shape is not known, but can be measured by averaging over many structures.

It was predicted quantitatively by Nick Kaiser in , and first decisively measured in by the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. In astronomical spectroscopy , the Lyman-alpha forest is the sum of the absorption lines arising from the Lyman-alpha transition of neutral hydrogen in the spectra of distant galaxies and quasars.

Lyman-alpha forest observations can also constrain cosmological models. There are various hypotheses about what dark matter could consist of, as set out in the table below.

Dark matter can refer to any substance which interacts predominantly via gravity with visible matter e.

Hence in principle it need not be composed of a new type of fundamental particle but could, at least in part, be made up of standard baryonic matter, such as protons or neutrons.

Baryons protons and neutrons make up ordinary stars and planets. However, baryonic matter also encompasses less common non-primordial black holes , neutron stars , faint old white dwarfs and brown dwarfs , collectively known as massive compact halo objects MACHOs , which can be hard to detect.

Candidates for non-baryonic dark matter are hypothetical particles such as axions , sterile neutrinos , weakly interacting massive particles WIMPs , gravitationally-interacting massive particles GIMPs , supersymmetric particles, or primordial black holes.

Unlike baryonic matter, nonbaryonic matter did not contribute to the formation of the elements in the early universe Big Bang nucleosynthesis [13] and so its presence is revealed only via its gravitational effects, or weak lensing.

In addition, if the particles of which it is composed are supersymmetric, they can undergo annihilation interactions with themselves, possibly resulting in observable by-products such as gamma rays and neutrinos indirect detection.

If dark matter is composed of weakly-interacting particles, an obvious question is whether it can form objects equivalent to planets , stars , or black holes.

Historically, the answer has been it cannot, [] [] [] because of two factors:. In — the idea dense dark matter was composed of primordial black holes , made a comeback [] following results of gravitational wave measurements which detected the merger of intermediate mass black holes.

It was proposed the intermediate mass black holes causing the detected merger formed in the hot dense early phase of the universe due to denser regions collapsing.

A later survey of about a thousand supernovae detected no gravitational lensing events, when about eight would be expected if intermediate mass primordial black holes above a certain mass range accounted for the majority of dark matter.

Tiny black holes are theorized to emit Hawking radiation. However the detected fluxes were too low and did not have the expected energy spectrum suggesting tiny primordial black holes are not widespread enough to account for dark matter.

In , the lack of microlensing effects in the observation of Andromeda suggests tiny black holes do not exist. However, there still exists a largely unconstrained mass range smaller than that can be limited by optical microlensing observations, where primordial black holes may account for all dark matter.

Dark matter can be divided into cold , warm , and hot categories. Primordial density fluctuations smaller than this length get washed out as particles spread from overdense to underdense regions, while larger fluctuations are unaffected; therefore this length sets a minimum scale for later structure formation.

The categories are set with respect to the size of a protogalaxy an object that later evolves into a dwarf galaxy : Dark matter particles are classified as cold, warm, or hot according to their FSL; much smaller cold , similar to warm , or much larger hot than a protogalaxy.

Cold dark matter leads to a bottom-up formation of structure with galaxies forming first and galaxy clusters at a latter stage, while hot dark matter would result in a top-down formation scenario with large matter aggregations forming early, later fragmenting into separate galaxies; [ clarification needed ] the latter is excluded by high-redshift galaxy observations.

These categories also correspond to fluctuation spectrum effects and the interval following the Big Bang at which each type became non-relativistic.

Davis et al. Candidate particles can be grouped into three categories on the basis of their effect on the fluctuation spectrum Bond et al.

If the dark matter is composed of abundant light particles which remain relativistic until shortly before recombination, then it may be termed "hot".

The best candidate for hot dark matter is a neutrino Such particles are termed "warm dark matter", because they have lower thermal velocities than massive neutrinos Gravitinos and photinos have been suggested Pagels and Primack ; Bond, Szalay and Turner Any particles which became nonrelativistic very early, and so were able to diffuse a negligible distance, are termed "cold" dark matter CDM.

There are many candidates for CDM including supersymmetric particles. The 2. Conversely, much lighter particles, such as neutrinos with masses of only a few eV, have FSLs much larger than a protogalaxy, thus qualifying them as hot.

Cold dark matter offers the simplest explanation for most cosmological observations. It is dark matter composed of constituents with an FSL much smaller than a protogalaxy.

This is the focus for dark matter research, as hot dark matter does not seem capable of supporting galaxy or galaxy cluster formation, and most particle candidates slowed early.

The constituents of cold dark matter are unknown. Possibilities range from large objects like MACHOs such as black holes [] and Preon stars [] or RAMBOs such as clusters of brown dwarfs , to new particles such as WIMPs and axions.

Studies of Big Bang nucleosynthesis and gravitational lensing convinced most cosmologists [14] [] [] [] [] [] that MACHOs [] [] cannot make up more than a small fraction of dark matter.

Peter: " Many supersymmetric models offer dark matter candidates in the form of the WIMPy Lightest Supersymmetric Particle LSP. Warm dark matter comprises particles with an FSL comparable to the size of a protogalaxy.

Predictions based on warm dark matter are similar to those for cold dark matter on large scales, but with less small-scale density perturbations.

This reduces the predicted abundance of dwarf galaxies and may lead to lower density of dark matter in the central parts of large galaxies.

Some researchers consider this a better fit to observations. No known particles can be categorized as warm dark matter. A postulated candidate is the sterile neutrino : A heavier, slower form of neutrino that does not interact through the weak force , unlike other neutrinos.

Some modified gravity theories, such as scalar—tensor—vector gravity , require "warm" dark matter to make their equations work.

Hot dark matter consists of particles whose FSL is much larger than the size of a protogalaxy. The neutrino qualifies as such particle.

They were discovered independently, long before the hunt for dark matter: they were postulated in , and detected in Neutrinos interact with normal matter only via gravity and the weak force , making them difficult to detect the weak force only works over a small distance, thus a neutrino triggers a weak force event only if it hits a nucleus head-on.

BLACK MATTER 📷. Dark matter. Unlike normal matter, dark matter does not interact with the electromagnetic force. This means it does not absorb, reflect or emit light, making it extremely hard to spot. In fact, researchers have been able to infer the existence of dark matter only from the gravitational effect it seems to have on visible matter. The familiar material of the universe, known as baryonic matter, is composed of protons, neutrons and electrons. Dark matter may be made of baryonic or non-baryonic matter.

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Black Matter
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